How to write a research protocol: Tips and tricks

Giuseppina Novo, Rodolfo Citro, Giovanni Corrado, Maurizio Tusa, Frank Benedetto, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Matteo Cameli, Giulia Elena Mandoli, Francesco Antonini-Canterin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There is a need to reassess the most appropriate indications for stress echocardiography in the current era, in patients with suspect or known coronary artery disease (CAD), and also the most helpful additional parameters that can be easily calculated in clinical practice to increase the known suboptimal sensitivity for obstructive CAD of this test. The current review tries to clarify what is and what should be the proper role for functional testing in general, but specifically regarding modern stress echocardiography in the current practice, for suspected CAD and/or atypical chest pain. Few candidate additional parameters beyond wall motion assessment are here suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy of stress echocardiography, and pertinent literature is briefly reviewed, together with a more personal view of the author regarding the characteristics of each parameter, as far as ease of acquisition, cost, and true diagnostic or prognostic clinical usefulness are concerned. The reviewed additional parameters, which can be acquired during stress echocardiography, are Doppler coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending artery, cardiac calcium score, global longitudinal strain, ventricular elastance, and contrast myocardial perfusion. Each of them finds a potential place in the current practice or may find a place in the future practice of stress echocardiography.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-159
Number of pages6
JournalJOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ECHOGRAPHY
Volume28
Publication statusPublished - 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Novo, G., Citro, R., Corrado, G., Tusa, M., Benedetto, F., Antonini-Canterin, F., Cameli, M., Mandoli, G. E., & Antonini-Canterin, F. (2018). How to write a research protocol: Tips and tricks. JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ECHOGRAPHY, 28, 154-159.