Ground-Based measurements of the 2014-2015 holuhraun volcanic cloud (Iceland)

Alessandro Aiuppa, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Mario Montopoli, Gaetano Giudice, Sibylle Von Löwis, Helen Thomas, Santiago Arellano, Nicole S. Keller, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Vladimir Conde, Stéphanie Dumont, Amy Donovan, Alessandro La Spina, Luigi Mereu, Sara Barsotti, Bo Galle, Gerður Stefánsdóttir, Frank Marzano, Elín B. Jónasdóttir, Robert A. AskewMary K. Butwin, Þorsteinn Jóhannsson, Þórður Arason, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Þorgils Ingvarsson, Hermann Arngrímsson, Gerður Stefánsdóttir, Isla C. Simmons, Richard F. Yeo, Fausto Grassa, Baldur Bergsson, Andri Stefánsson, Fred Prata, Richard F. Yeo, Isla C. Simmons, Mike Burton

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14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun in central Iceland was distinguished by the high emission of gases, in total 9.6 Mt SO 2 , with almost no tephra. This work collates all ground-based measurements of this extraordinary eruption cloud made under particularly challenging conditions: remote location, optically dense cloud with high SO 2 column amounts, low UV intensity, frequent clouds and precipitation, an extensive and hot lava field, developing ramparts, and high-latitude winter conditions. Semi-continuous measurements of SO 2 flux with three scanning DOAS instruments were augmented by car traverses along the ring-road and along the lava. The ratios of other gases/SO 2 were measured by OP-FTIR, MultiGAS, and filter packs. Ratios of SO 2 /HCl = 30-110 and SO 2 /HF = 30-130 show a halogen-poor eruption cloud. Scientists on-site reported extremely minor tephra production during the eruption. OPC and filter packs showed low particle concentrations similar to non-eruption cloud conditions. Three weather radars detected a droplet-rich eruption cloud. Top of eruption cloud heights of 0.3-5.5 km agl were measured with ground-and aircraft-based visual observations, web camera and NicAIR II infrared images, triangulation of scanning DOAS instruments, and the location of SO 2 peaks measured by DOAS traverses. Cloud height and emission rate measurements were critical for initializing gas dispersal simulations for hazard forecasting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-
Number of pages25
JournalGEOSCIENCES
Volume8
Publication statusPublished - 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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    Aiuppa, A., Pfeffer, M. A., Montopoli, M., Giudice, G., Von Löwis, S., Thomas, H., Arellano, S., Keller, N. S., Ilyinskaya, E., Conde, V., Dumont, S., Donovan, A., La Spina, A., Mereu, L., Barsotti, S., Galle, B., Stefánsdóttir, G., Marzano, F., Jónasdóttir, E. B., ... Burton, M. (2018). Ground-Based measurements of the 2014-2015 holuhraun volcanic cloud (Iceland). GEOSCIENCES, 8, 29-.