Graphene p-Type Doping and Stability by Thermal Treatments in Molecular Oxygen Controlled Atmosphere

Franco Mario Gelardi, Marco Cannas, Gianpiero Buscarino, Simonpietro Agnello, Giannazzo, A. La Magna, Piazza, Fisichella, Roccaforte

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Doping and stability of monolayer low defect content graphene transferred on a silicon dioxide substrate on silicon are investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) during thermal treatments in oxygen and vacuum controlled atmosphere. The exposure to molecular oxygen induces graphene changes as evidenced by a blue-shift of the G and 2D Raman bands, together with the decrease of I<inf>2D</inf>/I<inf>G</inf> intensity ratio, which are consistent with a high p-type doping (∼10<sup>13</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>) of graphene. The successive thermal treatment in vacuum does not affect the induced doping showing this latter stability. By investigating the temperature range 140-350 °C and the process time evolution, the thermal properties of this doping procedure are characterized, and an activation energy of ∼56 meV is estimated. These results are interpreted on the basis of molecular oxygen induced ∼10<sup>13</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> p-type doping of graphene with stability energy >49 meV and postdoping reactivity in ambient atmosphere due to reaction of air molecules with oxygen trapped between graphene and substrate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22718-22723
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Energy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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