Genotoxicity and Epigenotoxicity of Carbazole-Derived Molecules on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Ilenia Cruciata, Fabio Caradonna, Claudio Luparello, John Spencer, Rhiannon Jones, Carol Austin, Martin Walker, Raysa Khan Tareque, Andreas C. Joerger, Mark C. Bagley, Cory A. Ocasio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The carbazole compounds PK9320 (1-(9-ethyl-7-(furan-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine) and PK9323 (1-(9-ethyl-7-(thiazol-4-yl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine), second-generation analogues of PK083 (1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine), restore p53 signaling in Y220C p53-mutated cancer cells by binding to a mutation-induced surface crevice and acting as molecular chaperones. In the present paper, these three molecules have been tested for mutant p53-independent genotoxic and epigenomic effects on wild-type p53 MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, employing a combination of Western blot for phospho-γH2AX histone, Comet assay and methylation-sensitive arbitrarily primed PCR to analyze their intrinsic DNA damage-inducing and DNA methylation-changing abilities. We demonstrate that small modifications in the substitution patterns of carbazoles can have profound effects on their intrinsic genotoxic and epigenetic properties, with PK9320 and PK9323 being eligible candidates as “anticancer compounds” and “anticancer epi-compounds” and PK083 a “damage-corrective” compound on human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Such different properties may be exploited for their use as anticancer agents and chemical probes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Genotoxicity and Epigenotoxicity of Carbazole-Derived Molecules on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this