Gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease are strongly associated with non-allergic nasal disorders

Salvatore Battaglia, Pierpaolo Marchetti, Leonardo Antonicelli, Pietro Pirina, Francesca Locatelli, Eliana Finocchio, Roberto Bono, Marcello Ferrari, Francesca Locatelli, Roberta Vesentini, Gianluca Spiteri, Francesca Sanna, Angelo Guido Corsico, Mario Olivieri, Giuseppe Verlato, Marcello Ferrari, Nicola Murgia

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported to be significantly associated with chronic rhinosinusitis, but the strength of the association is still debated. Aims: To evaluate the strength of the association between gastritis/GERD and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR)/allergic rhinitis (AR)/sinusitis. Methods: We investigated 2887 subjects aged 20–84 years, who underwent a clinical visit in seven Italian centres (Ancona, Palermo, Pavia, Terni, Sassari, Torino, Verona) within the study on Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases, a population-based multicase-control study between 2008 and 2014. Subjects were asked if they had doctor-diagnosed “gastritis or stomach ulcer (confirmed by gastroscopy)” or “gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia or esophagitis”. The association between NAR/AR/sinusitis and either gastritis or GERD was evaluated through relative risk ratios (RRR) by multinomial logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of gastritis/GERD increased from subjects without nasal disturbances (22.8% = 323/1414) to subjects with AR (25.8% = 152/590) and further to subjects with NAR (36.7% = 69/188) or sinusitis (39.9% = 276/691). When adjusting for centre, sex, age, education level, BMI, smoking habits and alcohol intake, the combination of gastritis and GERD was associated with a four-fold increase in the risk of NAR (RRR = 3.80, 95% CI 2.56–5.62) and sinusitis (RRR = 3.70, 2.62–5.23) with respect to controls, and with a much smaller increase in the risk of AR (RRR = 1.79, 1.37–2.35). Conclusion: The study confirmed the association between gastritis/GERD and nasal disturbances, which is stronger for NAR and sinusitis than for AR.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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