First study of the heat and gas budget for Sirung volcano, Indonesia

Alessandro Aiuppa, Philipon Bani, Ugan B. Saing, Pretina Sitinjak, Hilma Alfianti, Vitchko Tsanev, Alessandro Aiuppa, Clive Oppenheimer

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10 Citations (Scopus)


With at least four eruptions over the last 20 years, Sirung is currently one of the more active volcanoes in Indonesia. However, due to its remoteness, very little is known about the volcano and its hyperacid crater lake. We report here on the first measurements of gas and heat emissions from the volcano. Notable is the substantial heat loss from the crater lake surface, amounting to 220 MW. In addition, ~17 Gg of SO2, representing 0.8% of Indonesian volcanic SO2contribution into the atmosphere, ~11 Gg of H2S, ~17 Gg of CO2, and ~550 Gg of H2O are discharged into the atmosphere from the volcano annually. The volatiles degassed from Sirung magmas are subjected to hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions and sulfide depositions, initiated by the disproportionation of SO2. These processes lead to distinct gas compositions and changing lake water chemistry (in the sub-craters and the main crater lake). However, the occurrence of SO2-rich fluids and strong gas flux appear to highlight a rapid fluid transfer to surface, avoiding re-equilibration with lower temperature rocks/fluids in the conduits.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalBulletin of Volcanology
Publication statusPublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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