[automatically translated] The strategies aimed at improving road safety move, in general, according to two distinct purposes: - on the one hand, to limit the severity of the consequences of risky driving behaviors through the installation of devices useful to limit the damage to the occupants of vehicle in case of collision; - On the other hand, to prevent (or at least discourage) of reckless driving behavior through the adoption of appropriate measures to alert users and to encourage them not to transgressive behavior. The second purpose are due the speed calming devices, which, acting on driving behavior, aim to prevent the occurrence of accidents. Nevertheless, the application does not appropriate of these measures can paradoxically lead to an increase in the accident rate in the areas surrounding the one treated to effect a redistribution of the traffic that follows the restrictions imposed by the restraint devices. And in reality, a methodologically correct examination of the effects of different systems and treatments on the reduction of the vehicular speed, highlights that the desired effects are generally localized in space and time, but are accompanied by additional disadvantages such as loss of public acceptability, noise and air pollution, accidents can migrate (Comte et al., 1997). Numerous studies still inform on the reduction in vehicle volumes that occurred as a result of the installation of devices involved in residential areas and the contemporary growth of traffic on distribution boards, with obvious risks in terms of overall management of urban security. The same scientific evidence agree that the introduction of restraint devices when this is absolutely harmful episodic, limited to specific sites, or when there is no awareness of the global effect that the implementation of such measures in residential areas can generate. For the reasons mentioned above it it is evident that, to be able to implement a proper policy planning of urban road networks, with specific reference to the treatment of a residential area, it is necessary to implement a design strategy that is able to predict the effects of the measures taken, both in terms of safety, and from that, larger, mobility and the environment . prerequisite for a strategy of this type is the ability to isolate in the urban context, the areas with the greatest vocation to the treatment, for which, namely, is predictable greater effectiveness of restraint devices and, at the same time, an acceptable size of the possible negative effects. For this purpose, in the present study we proceeded to an examination of the existing literature to extract that information of quantitative and / or qualitative that may be supporting the design choices. In this bibliographic survey it has given preference to studies that present higher general characters and offer more guarantees as to the transferability of the results. In particular, the study takes into account the safety effects that may be expected from the adoption of traffic-calming measures, both on purely residential streets, and on those of distribution, to dwell, then, on the role of planning at the network level and the characteristics of the urban networks that meet the objectives of traffic calming. Finally, it proposes a methodological approach, from floor level to the project design, to be followed for the implementation of low emission zones.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|