[automatically translated] The competitive sports involve morphological and functional cardiac adaptations that optimize cardiac function during exercise. The main functional cardiac adaptation is represented by bradycardia at rest, resulting in the achievement of a new balance of the sympatho-vagal balance. The main morphological adaptation of the cardiovascular exercise is represented myocardial hypertrophy, characterized by an increase in cardiac mass that must be balanced and proportional to the degree and type of physical activity practiced. Myocyte hypertrophy that involves both the vascular component to maintain an adequate blood supply increased heart muscle mass. The fibrocitaria component is not increase as in the forms of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, thus avoiding the distensibility decreases or increases the cardiac wall stress, representing the negative consequences of the irreversible pathological forms. These adaptations vary according to hereditary factors (genotype), age and time of the beginning of the sport and the type and intensity of the workout, because the training models [resistance (endurance); power (power / strength); Mixed (strength / power)] determine different morphological and functional adaptations. The data reported in this review allow us to identify the study parameters of structural and functional cardiac adaptations and to define the limits of normality. Particular attention should be paid to the evaluation of the mass, wall thickness and internal dimensions of the left ventricle. Knowing the maximum values of these morphological parameters you can differentiate the athlete's heart, physiological condition, from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, conditions that predispose to potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias during exercise.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||RIVISTA DELLA FACOLTÀ DI SCIENZE MOTORIE DELL'UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI PALERMO|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|