DNA analysis as tool for identification of bacteria in archaeological watellogged wood

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S32. Wooden artifacts: from wood identification to dating andconservation/restoration strategiesDNA analysis as tool for identification of bacteria in archaeological waterlogged woodPalla, Franco; University of Palermo; Palermo; Italy Barresi, Giovanna; University ofPalermo; Palermo; ItalyDi Carlo, Enza; University of Palermo; Palermo; ItalyIn this work molecular techniques were applied in order to integrate the results obtained byOptical (OM) and Scanning Electron (SEM) Microscopy, to understanding and assessing thechanges in the anatomical structure of archaeological waterlogged wood (Pinus sp.) induced bybacteria colonization. Observation of wooden thin sections by OM showed the presence of blackand dark-brown areas (must probably due to sulphur compound) and mineral concretions. TheSEM micrographs revealed a specific cell wall alteration, attributable to bacterial activity andabundant pyrite framboids (as single structure or clustered). The presence of sulfur compounds inarchaeological waterlogged wood, indicate both long-term burial in anoxic environment andcolonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria.Molecular biology investigation was performed through ad hoc protocols by direct DNAextraction from wood samples and in vitro amplification of bacteria DNA target sequences (16S,ITS regions- rRNA).The results reveal and identify bacterial genus as Pseudomonas, Cellulomonas, Xanthomonasand Bacillus that, as reported in the related scientific literature, are the most commoncellulosolytic and ligninolytic bacteria.Moreover were also revealed the presence of Marinobacter sp. and Desulforudis audaxviator,respectively iron - oxidizing and sulfate - reducing bacteria.The investigation protocol set up in this work can be applied to a range of wooden artifacts ofarchaeological findings for both identification of bacteria colonization shed some light on thedegradation phenomena, indispensable for correct conservation and restoration strategies.Corresponding author: Palla, Franco <franco.palla@unipa.it>
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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