Development of polymeric functionally graded scaffolds: A brief review

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Over recent years, there has been a growing interest in multilayer scaffolds fabrication approaches. In fact, functionally graded scaffolds (FGSs) provide biological and mechanical functions potentially similar to those of native tissues. Based on the final application of the scaffold, there are different properties (physical, mechanical, biochemical, etc.) which need to gradually change in space. Therefore, a number of different technologies have been investigated, and often combined, to customize each region of the scaffolds as much as possible, aiming at achieving the best regenerative performance. In general, FGSs can be categorized as bilayered or multilayered, depending on the number of layers in the whole structure. In other cases, scaffolds are characterized by a continuous gradient of 1 or more specific properties that cannot be related to the presence of clearly distinguished layers. Since each traditional approach presents peculiar advantages and disadvantages, FGSs are good candidates to overcome the limitations of current treatment options. In contrast to the reviews reported in the literature, which usually focus on the application of FGS, this brief review provides an overview of the most common strategies adopted to prepare FGS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e107-e121
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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