Cognitive impairment and levodopa induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease: a longitudinal study from the PACOS cohort

Roberto Monastero, Vincenzo Restivo, Antonina Luca, Giovanni Mostile, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Mario Zappia, Alessandra Nicoletti, Roberta Baschi

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Aim of the study was to evaluate possible associations between cognitive dysfunctions and development of Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia (LID). PD patients from the Parkinson’s disease Cognitive impairment Study cohort who underwent a baseline and follow-up neuropsychological evaluations were enrolled. Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI) was diagnosed according to MDS level II criteria. The following cognitive domains were evaluated: episodic memory, attention, executive function, visuo-spatial function and language. A domain was considered as impaired when the subject scored 2 standard deviation below normality cut-off values in at least one test for each domain. Levodopa equivalent dose, UPDRS-ME and LID were recorded at baseline and follow-up. To identify possible neuropsychological predictors associated with the probability of LID development at follow-up, Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used. Out of 139 PD patients enrolled (87 men, mean age 65.7 ± 9.4), 18 (12.9%) were dyskinetic at baseline. Out of 121 patients non-dyskinetic at baseline, 22 (18.1%) developed LID at follow-up. The impairment of the attention and executive domains strongly predicted the development of LID (HR 4.45;95%CI 1.49–13.23 and HR 3.46; 95%CI 1.26–9.48 respectively). Impairment of the attention and executive domains increased the risk of dyskinesia reflecting the alteration of common cortical network.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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