Closed Incision Negative Pressure Therapy Achieves Better Outcome Than Standard Wound Care: Clinical Outcome and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Open Ventral Hernia Repair With Synthetic Mesh Positioning

Leo Licari, Giuseppe Salamone, Claudia Carolla, Simona Viola, Sofia Campanella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BackgroundSurgical site infections (SSIs) and surgical site occurrences (SSOs) are frequent post-operative complications that are dependent on the presence of different risk factors. The use of closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) is considered a measure by the WHO guidelines for prevention of SSIs. The prevention of SSOs is an extremely important issue in the ventral hernia repair (VHR) surgical field. SSO onset not only affects the patient's quality of life, but can also cause the onset of life-threatening conditions that may require re-hospitalization, re-intervention and often mesh removal. Such outcome can become extremely costly, contributing to increased health care costs for the patient as well as the hospital. This study aims (1) to describe the epidemiological characteristics of SSOs following VHR in our experience; (2) to compare the post-operative outcomes of those who underwent VHR with synthetic mesh when treated with standard wound care (SWC) using gauze dressings vs ciNPT, and finally (3) to perform a spending review of the ciNPT in the hypothesis of its application after VHR with use of synthetic prosthetic material; financial savings including cost-effectiveness were investigated in terms of prevention of wound complications.Materials and methodsA retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent open VHR with synthetic mesh positioning by analyzing the hospital medical records between January 2015 and December 2017, with a primary focus on high risk post-operative complications, such as age > 65, pre-existed wound infection, pulmonary diseases, BMI > 25 kg/m(2), malnutrition, ascites, hypertension, diabetes, active smoking, previous radiation therapy, steroid use, pharmacological immunosuppression, chronic inflammatory diseases. In the final analysis, the outcomes of 70 patients who received ciNPT and 110 who were managed with using adherent gauze dressings were compared.ResultsNine (12.8%) patients in the ciNPT group and 48 (43.6%) in the control group developed a wound complication (p < 0.0001). The relative risk (RR) was 0.29 (0.15 - 0.56), suggesting that infection is less likely to occur in ciNPT-treated incisions, compared with standard wound care. The differences observed between the superficial infection rate and the deep infection rate were significant with p respectively 0.0006 and 0.04. Wound complications were reported in patients after discharge from the hospital. Fever was reported in 28.6% of patients in the ciNPT group vs 54.5% in the control group (p = 0.0006; RR (95% CI) 0.52 (0.35 - 0.79); OR (95% CI) 0.33 (0.18 - 0.63)); leukocytosis affected 21.4% of patients treated with ciNPT vs 45.4% of patients in the control group (p = 0.001; RR (95% CI) 0.47 (0.29 - 0.77); OR 0.33 (0.16 - 0.65)). ciNPT patients had shorter hospitalization stay than control group (3 +/- 1.37 vs 6 +/- 2.39; p < 0.00001). The cost-effectiveness deterministic analysis estimated that if the ciNPT is routinely adopted, the reduction of total costs would be (sic)166'944.00 for 100 patients.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that ciNPT use in high-risk populations following VHR with synthetic mesh positioning is associated with positive clinical and economic outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalCUREUS
Volume12
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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