Clinical observations and risk factors for tinnitus in a Sicilian cohort

Pietro Salvago, Emanuele Cannizzaro, Enrico Martines, Fulvio Plescia, Francesco Martines, Francesco Martines, Federico Sireci, Marianna Mucia

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33 Citations (Scopus)


The aims of this study were to determine thedistribution of risk factors associated with tinnitus analysingtheir role in the development of tinnitus and the effectsof their interaction; to evidence the importance of a suitableand adequate clinical and audiologic assessment toavoid those modifiable risk factors responsible for cochleardysfunction and tinnitus onset. 46 subjects with tinnitusand 74 controls were studied according to: age, sex, BodyMass Index (BMI), neck circumference, tobacco smoking,feeling fatigue or headache, self reporting snoring, hypertension,diabetes, coronary heart disease, and/or hyperlipidemia,and laboratory finding as lipid profile and levels ofreactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Audiologicalassessment was performed by multi-frequency audiometry(PTA0.5–16 kHz) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions(TEOAE diagnostic). Univariate analysis was performed toexamine the association between determinants andoccurrence of tinnitus; Mantel–Haenszel test (G.or) wasused to investigate the joint effect of determinants on tinnitus.Tinnitus was more frequent among males with age[50 years; BMI[30 kg/m2, neck circumference[40 cm,headache, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia resultedsignificant risk factors for tinnitus (P.0001). Tinnitusgroup had more comorbidity (P.0001) and worseaudiometric thresholds (60.87 Vs 21.62 % hearing loss;P.0001) with respect to control group. The interactionbetween hypertension–BMI C 30 kg/m2 (G.or = 8.45) andsmoking–hypercholesterolemia (G.or = 5.08) increasesthe risk of tinnitus (P.0001). Our results underline thatseveral factors either individually or jointly contribute totinnitus onset; a comprehensive knowledge about tinnitusrisk factors and associated clinical conditions could contributeto minimizing this disorder.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2719-2729
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Publication statusPublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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