Cardiorenal syndrome type 4: From chronic kidney disease to cardiovascular impairment

Salvatore Corrao, Grazia Maria Virzì, Anna Clementi, Alessandra Brocca, Viviana Rosalia Scarfia, Claudio Ronco, Antonio Granata, Salvatore Corrao, Lorenzo Malatino, Massimo De Cal, Luca Zanoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4), or chronic renocardiac syndrome, has been defined as chronic abnormalities in renal function leading to cardiac disease and recognizes the extreme burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is common and increasingly recognized as a risk factor for CVD. Even though the treatment for CVD has dramatically improved over the past decades, it still takes responsibility for up to 50% of deaths in CKD patients. For this reason, patients with CKD should be thoroughly evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors that require careful management, given the significant burden of CRS type 4 on the healthcare system. This review focuses on the most significant conventional and non-conventional CVD risk factors related to CKD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Internal Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine


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