Carbonatites from the Southern Brazilian platform: I

Paolo Censi, Sergio Speziale, Francesca Castorina, Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Celso De Barros Gomes, Leila Soares Marques

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a comprehensive overview of the geochemical characteristics and evolution of the carbo- natites from the southern Brazilian Platform (Paraná Basin). The carbonatites from dierent complexes dis- play large compositional variability in terms of abun- dances of incompatible and rare earth elements. This is in agreement with an origin from heterogeneous litho- spheric sources, as conrmed by isotopic data (see Speziale et al., this issue). The characteristic major and trace element abundances of these carbonatites present compelling evidence for invoking liquid unmixing as the main mechanism of their formation and evolution albeit few exceptions. We propose an evolutionary trend for the Brazilian carbonatites, which can be summarized as following: exsolution of the primary Ca- or Mg-carbona- titic liquids systematically takes place at the phonolite- peralkaline phonolite stage of magma dierentiation; this is followed by progressive Fe-enrichment and by nal emplacement of uorocarbonatites associated with hydrothermal uids.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-478
Number of pages27
JournalOpen Geosciences
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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