Brain tumor-derived extracellular vesicles as carriers of disease markers: Molecular chaperones and micrornas

Antonella Marino Gammazza, Alessandra Maria Vitale, Claudia Campanella, Radha Santonocito, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Fabio Bucchieri, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Alessandra Maria Vitale, Everly Conway De Macario, Alberto J. L. Macario

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Primary and metastatic brain tumors are usually serious conditions with poor prognosis, which reveal the urgent need of developing rapid diagnostic tools and efficacious treatments. To achieve these objectives, progress must be made in the understanding of brain tumor biology, for example, how they resist natural defenses and therapeutic intervention. One resistance mechanism involves extracellular vesicles that are released by tumors to meet target cells nearby or distant via circulation and reprogram them by introducing their cargo. This consists of different molecules among which are microRNAs (miRNAs) and molecular chaperones, the focus of this article. miRNAs modify target cells in the immune system to avoid antitumor reaction and chaperones are key survival molecules for the tumor cell. Extracellular vesicles cargo reflects the composition and metabolism of the original tumor cell; therefore, it is a source of markers, including the miRNAs and chaperones discussed in this article, with potential diagnostic and prognostic value. This and their relatively easy availability by minimally invasive procedures (e.g., drawing venous blood) illustrate the potential of extracellular vesicles as useful materials to manage brain tumor patients. Furthermore, understanding extracellular vesicles circulation and interaction with target cells will provide the basis for using this vesicle for delivering therapeutic compounds to selected tumor cells.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalAPPLIED SCIENCES
Volume10
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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