In this study, PUF disk passive air samplers were deployed at eight sites, during two sampling periods, on the Island of Sicily in the Mediterranean basin. Samples were screened for a number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (n = 28 congeners), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (n = 16 compounds), and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs n = 28) using GC-MS. PCB concentrations in air ranged ~10- 300 pg m−3. The PCB pattern was dominated by lower to middle molecular weight PCBs (Cl3-5) and PCB-28 and PCB-52 were the most abundant congeners. α- and γ- Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) concentrations in air were relatively high ~420 ± 320 (50-1000) and 460 ± 340 (30- 1000) pg m−3, respectively, with an average α/γ ratio of 1 ± 0.5, indicating a tendency of higher use of lindane than of technical HCH. Among DDTs, only p,p′-DDT 90 ± 15 (~10-800) and p,p′-DDE 60 ± 60 (20-400) were frequently detected. DDT/DDE = 0.4-3.0 (1.0 ± 0.7 for both periods) suggesting past and fresh inputs of DDTat the sampling sites. α-Endosulfan, recently included in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention, fluctuated between 120 ± 50 (50-1000) pg m−3. In contrast, PBDE levels were very low (0.2-2 pgm−3). Back trajectories of advection suggest that POP levels are mainly related to local sources (primary or secondary) from Sicily (50-70% contribution of air masses), Southern Italy, and Sardinia (20%). This study provides new information for POP levels in the atmosphere of the Mediterranean region.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis