Ancillary Services in the Energy Blockchain for Microgrids

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23 Citations (Scopus)


The energy blockchain is a distributed Internet protocol for energy transactions between nodes of a power sys- tem. Recent applications of the energy blockchain in microgrids only consider the energy transactions between peers without considering the technical issues that can arise, especially when the system is islanded. One contribution of the paper is, thus, to depict a comprehensive framework of the technical and economic management of microgrids in the blockchain era, considering, for the first time, the provision of ancillary services and, in particular, of the voltage regulation service. When more PV nodes are operating in the grid, large reactive power flows may appear in the branches. In order to limit such flows, a reactive optimal power flow (R-OPF) is solved, setting the voltage at the PV buses as variables within prescribed limits. Each PV generator will thus contribute to voltage regulation, receiving a remuneration included in the transaction and certified by the blockchain technology. For showing how this system can work, a test microgrid, where some energy transactions take place, has been considered. For each transaction, the R-OPF assigns the reactive power to the PV buses. The R-OPF is solved by a Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. Finally, the paper proposes a method for remuneration of reactive power provision; this method, integrated into the blockchain, allows evaluating the contribution to voltage regulation and increases the transparency and cost traceability in the transactions. The application section shows the implementation of a Tendermint-based Energy trans- action platform integrating R-OPF and the above cited technical assessments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7310-7319
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication statusPublished - 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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