An Updated Review on the Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Molecular Hybrids and Conjugates Bearing Imidazole Moiety

Maurizio Ciofalo, Renzo Rossi

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The rapid growth of serious infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially the nosocomial ESKAPE pathogens, has been acknowledged by Governments and scientists and is one of the world’s major health problems. Various strategies have been and are currently investigated and developed to reduce and/or delay the bacterial resistance. One of these strategies regards the design and development of antimicrobial hybrids and conjugates. This unprecedented critical review, in which our continuing interest in the synthesis and evaluation of the bioactivity of imidazole derivatives is testified, aims to summarise and comment on the results obtained from the end of the 1900s until February 2020 in studies conducted by numerous international research groups on the synthesis and evaluation of the antibacterial properties of imidazole-based molecular hybrids and conjugates in which the pharmacophoric constituents of these compounds are directly covalently linked or connected through a linker or spacer. In this review, significant attention was paid to summarise the strategies used to overcome the antibiotic resistance of pathogens whose infections are difficult to treat with conventional antibiotics. However, it does not include literature data on the synthesis and evaluation of the bioactivity of hybrids and conjugates in which an imidazole moiety is fused with a carbo- or heterocyclic subunit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-106
Number of pages106
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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