A cross-country examination of emotional eating, restrained eating and intuitive eating: Measurement Invariance across eight countries

Salvatore Gullo, Gianluca Lo Coco, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Jacinthe Dion, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Alvaro Sicilia, Marita Mccabe, Qiqiang He, Marie-Eve Blackburn, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibánez, Naomi Hayami-Chisuwa, Giada Pietrabissat, Christophe Maïano, Esben Strodl, Annie Aimé, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Catherine Begin, Charlotte Markey, Marie L. CaltabianoMichel Probst, David Mellor, Rachel F. Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This study examined the measurement invariance of three scales that assessed emotional eating, restrained eating, and intuitive eating across eight countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Italy, Japan, Spain and the United States) in order to determine their suitability for cross-country body image research. A total of 6272 young adults took part in this study. Participants completed an online survey including the Emotional Eating subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-Revised 21, the Restraint subscale of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and the Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues subscale of The Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate potential cross-country differences in functioning of the measures. Partial invariance for all three scales was found, with only minor levels of non-invariance identified. Multiple indicator multiple cause models identified BMI and gender as potential influences on scores for these measures. Sources of invariance across groups are discussed, as well as implications for further substantive research across countries involving these measures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-254
Number of pages10
JournalBody Image
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • General Psychology

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