A comparative meta-analysis of TEMPS scores across mood disorder patients, their first-degree relatives, healthy controls, and other psychiatric disorders

Nicola Veronese, Tommaso Toffanin, Kangguang Lin, Nicola Veronese, Leonardo Zaninotto, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Christoph U. Correll, Michele Fornaro

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44 Citations (Scopus)


Background The Temperament Evaluation Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS) is validated to assess temperament in clinical and non-clinical samples. Scores vary across bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and healthy controls (HCs), but a meta-analysis is missing. Methods Meta-analysis of studies comparing TEMPS scores in patients with mood disorders or their first-degree relatives to each other, or to a psychiatric control group or HCs. Results Twenty-six studies were meta-analyzed with patients with BD (n= 2025), MDD (n=1283), ADHD (n=56) and BPD (n=43), relatives of BD (n=436), and HCs (n=1757). Cyclothymic (p<0.001) and irritable TEMPS scores (p<0.001) were higher in BD than MDD (studies=12), and in MDD vs HCs (studies=8). Cyclothymic (p<0.001), irritable (p<0.001) and anxious (p=0.03) scores were higher in BD than their relatives, who, had higher scores than HCs. No significant differences emerged between ADHD and BD (studies=3); Conclusion Affective temperaments are on a continuum, with increasing scores ranging from HCs through MDD to BD regarding cyclothymic and irritable temperament, from MDD through BD to HC regarding hyperthymic temperament, and from HC through BD relatives to BD regarding cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperament. Depressive and anxious temperaments did not differ between BD and MDD, being nonetheless the lowest in HCs. BD did not differ from ADHD in any investigated TEMPS domain. Limitations Different TEMPS versions, few studies comparing BD with ADHD or BPD, no correlation with other questionnaires. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-46
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Publication statusPublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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