Climate change is already impacting marine ecosystems across a range of scales, from individual physiology, to changes in speciesinteractions and community structure, and ultimately to patterns in geographic distribution. Predicting how marine ecosystems will respondto environmental change is a signifi cant challenge because vulnerability to climatic and non-climatic stressors is highly variable, and dependson an organism’s functional traits, tolerance to stressors, and the environment in which it lives. We present a mechanistic approach based onbiophysical and dynamic energy budget models that integrates the cumulative effects of multiple environmental stressors (temperature andfood) and stress associated with the presence of predators (the “fear of being eaten”), with the functional traits of an organism. We describehow multiple factors such as feeding time, food availability, and weather can be combined into a few simple metrics and explore how thephysiological and behavioral impacts of predation risk can be included in this framework by altering prey feeding time and performance.Importantly, we highlight several critical gaps in our basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that drive responses to multiplestressors in natural systems. The framework presented here is, thus, intended to serve as a guide for the formulation of explicit, testablehypotheses and further controlled experimentation.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||American Malacological Bulletin|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science