BACKGROUND/AIMS: We showed that patho-physiological concentrations of either 7-keto-cholesterol (7-KC), or cholestane-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (TRIOL) caused the eryptotic death of human red blood cells (RBC), strictly dependent on the early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of the current study was to assess the contribution of the erythrocyte ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (RBC-NOX), nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) and xanthine oxido-reductase (XOR) to the oxysterol-dependent eryptosis and pertinent activation pathways. METHODS: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) and nitric oxide formation from 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein (DCF-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA) -dependent fluorescence, respectively; Akt1, phospho-NOS3 Ser1177, and PKCζ from Western blot analysis. The activity of individual 7-KC (7 μM) and TRIOL (2, μM) on ROS-generating enzymes and relevant activation pathways was assayed in the presence of Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), allopurinol, NSC23766 and LY294002, inhibitors in this order of RBC-NOX, RBC-NOS, XOR and upstream regulatory proteins Rac GTPase and phosphoinositide3 Kinase (PI3K); hemoglobin oxidation from spectrophotometric analysis. RESULTS: RBC-NOX was the target of 7-KC, through a signaling including Rac GTPase and PKCζ, whereas TRIOL caused activation of RBC-NOS according to the pathway PI3K/Akt, with the concurrent activity of a Rac-GTPase. In concomitance with the TRIOL-induced .NO production, formation of methemoglobin with global loss of heme were observed, ascribable to nitrosative stress. XOR, activated after modification of the redox environment by either RBC-NOX or RBC-NOS activity, concurred to the overall oxidative/nitrosative stress by either oxysterols. When 7-KC and TRIOL were combined, they acted independently and their effect on ROS/RONS production and PS exposure appeared the result of the effects of the oxysterols on RBC-NOX and RBC-NOS. CONCLUSION: Eryptosis of human RBCs may be caused by either 7-KC or TRIOL by oxidative/nitrosative stress through distinct signaling cascades activating RBC-NOX and RBC-NOS, respectively, with the complementary activity of XOR; when combined, the oxysterols act independently and both concur to the final eryptotic effect.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
Tesoriere, L., Livrea, M. A., Frazzitta, A., Allegra, M., Cilla, A., & Attanzio, A. (2019). 7-Keto-Cholesterol and Cholestan-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-Triol Induce Eryptosis through Distinct Pathways Leading to NADPH Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 53, 933-947.